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The bitter struggle that rolled back and forth across the North African desert was the first major Allied victory of the Second World War. ODAL!Music: ODAL!Video: channel/rfyxEnAH7Uy. North Africa campaigns, (–43), in World War II, series of battles for but significant events that bound the Axis Powers and culminated in a world war.

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At that point, Alexander simply did not trust American units. On May 15, he launched Operation Brevity, under the command of Brig. The Battle of El Alamein began on October 23 with a massive artillery barrage fired by British guns.

After a tentative effort to relieve Tobruk in mid-MayWavell made a greater one in mid-June, with fresh reinforcements. Montgomery used the time after the Battle of Alam el Halfa to rest and train his troops, integrate the new American tanks he had received, and carefully plan his counterattack.

He was promoted to the temporary rank africx lieutenant general in March and led the U. Auchinleck launched a wxis counterattack on Julybut gained no ground.

Of great significance, on 29 June US reports from Egypt of British military operations stopped using the compromised “Black Code” which the Axis were reading, so learning of British “strengths, positions, losses, norgh, supply, situation, plans, morale etc”.

North Africa campaigns | Battles, Combatants, & Significance |

Military disaster logistics and tactics In logistics: It was not until June 10, —just four days before the Germans entered Paris—that Italy declared war on Britain and France.

Some six Italian divisions drove east, bypassing a small British covering force along the border, and halted at Sidi Barrani, just short of the main British positions at Mersa Matruh.

The British response was piecemeal, but Rommel could not complete a drive to the sea that would have enveloped the British on the Gazala line. The Suez Canal also provided Britain with a valuable link to her overseas dominions—part of a lifeline that ran through the Mediterranean Sea.


North African Campaign

On the tactical and operational levels, several factors conspired against the Axis despite the battlefield brilliance of Rommel and the superb fighting of the Afrika Korps. This was an attempt to push the Axis forces off the key passes at the border, which gained some initial success, but the advanced position could not be held.

The forward Allied force—now named XIII Corps —adopted a defensive posture and over the coming months was built up, before having most of its veteran forces redeployed to Greece.

World War II Magazine. Both sides again hunkered down to build up their strength.

Seven weeks passed before the British launched their offensive. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Rommel slipped away again, and although a British flanking maneuver cut off his rearguard, that rearguard was able to break through the encirclement and escape.

On the ground, the balance was very different. Total Axis losses came to , which included the loss of three field armies. On November 28, the Allies reached Tebourba, only 12 miles from Tunis, but a well-conducted Axis counterattack drove them back 20 miles in seven days. Rommel continued to grow weaker. The assault was scheduled for October agrica,the night before the full moon.

Rommel had lost more than one-third of his tanks, and the i were running short on fuel and ammunition. Help us improve this article! The British then attempted an encirclement near Mersa Matruh but were hampered by a fuel shortage and heavy rain. The British undertook that offensive with more than twice as many tanks as their opponent. Although Churchill desperately wanted to win a clear victory for political purposes and to raise morale, neither Alexander nor Montgomery was inclined to take the offensive without first amassing an overwhelming advantage.

After Gott was killed on August 7, when his transport was shot down en route to Cairo, Gen. Please try again later. He attempted morth relieve the Axis forces at Halfaya and at the same time cut off the Eighth Army. On December 9 the Italian garrisons at Nibeiwa, Tummar West, and Tummar East were taken, and thousands of prisoners were captured, whereas the attackers suffered very light casualties.


That redeployment was well in progress axie, soon after midday on November 3, an overriding order came from Hitler, insisting that el-Alamein must be held at all costs. On paper, at least, Italy enjoyed a considerable advantage over Britain in the Mediterranean theater of operations.

Rommel reached Tripoli on January 23 and the Tunisian border at the end of the month. In the air, the British also enjoyed a greater superiority than ever before, with more than 1, first-line aircraft against some German and Italian planes. Auchinleck relieved Ritchie and personally assumed command of the Eighth Army.

North Africa campaigns

After the invasion of Ethiopia by Italian troops in Octoberthe British and French proposed a secret agreement that would have ceded the bulk of Ethiopian territory to Italy in exchange for a truce. Only 30 tons of Axis supplies were shipped to North Africa in Novemberand 62 percent of them were lost en route.

That threat forced the British forward units in Libya afrida resupply through Tobruk, more than miles away.

Although Rommel had been ordered to simply hold the line, an armoured reconnaissance soon became a full-fledged offensive from El Axs in March Hampered by a divided German command structure and rapidly massing Allied reinforcements, the attack stalled. Seventh Army into Sicily, employing his…. This created a supply problem for his forward units.