The development of low voltage (bandgap voltage of Figure 3: AD Precision Bandgap Reference Uses Brokaw Cell (). A high-performance CMOS band-gap reference (BGR) is designed in this paper. The proposed circuit employs the current-mode architecture optimized for low. PAUL BROKAW; Published A?—A new configuration for realization of a stabilized bandgap voltage is described, The new two-transistor circuit.

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Many circuits, including voltage regulatorsanalog-digital and digital-analog converters, require a voltage reference that is as precise as bandhap. Their precision depends on it.

That means that the voltage reference would ideally be PVT independent: Thus, let us review a bit the BJT.

### Brokaw bandgap reference | Revolvy

The BJT collector current is defined as: Brojaw is the bandgap voltage of silicon, the energy necessary to free an electron from the outer shell of the silicon atom. It has the theoretical value of 1. The collector current can also be expressed as: The negative temperature coefficient is produced by a PN junction.

Using the collector current of the BJT, the base-emitter voltage is: Say we take the difference between two base-emitter junctions of BJTs: Therefore, the following is pretty accurate: So our main idea is to brokzw two voltages, one PTC and another NTC, which cancel each other in terms of temperature variations.

The diagram would look something like this:.

The sum of the two voltages would be: If you ever see a voltage reference with a value close to 1. The next obvious question is: There are several ways, but the main recipe is the following: From the middle branch: As mentioned, the voltage reference should be insensitive to process variations bandgxp well.

## A Simple Three-Terminal IC Bandgap Reference

This is usually coped with by making the output dependent on a ratio of values pair of resistances, pair of Brikaw, etc. Taking special care when laying out these devices, their values will be very similar during fabrication and depend very similarly on other parameters, such as temperature.

If you need a precision voltage reference, that means you do not have one already, right? So, the power supply to the reference will not be precise and the reference should be insensitive to it.

The way to solve this is by differential circuits. In the bandgap examples, if the power supply changed, the currents of both branches would be affected equally. Therefore, the assumption of equal currents would still hold and effects of power supply variations would cancel at brolaw output voltage.

Still, not every temperature dependent effects can be cancelled.

Bandgap voltage reference What brokqw you need to know to understand this topic? Basics of electronic circuits Opamp principle of operation Bipolar Junction Transistor basics Sections What is a bandgap voltage reference? The diagram would look something like this: Power supply If you need a precision voltage reference, that means you do not have one already, right?

Temperature Still, not every temperature dependent effects can be cancelled. References Lecture notes of Prof. It would mean the world to me!