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Lotharii Cardinalis (Innocenti III) De miseria humanae conditionis. Front Cover. Papa Inocencio III. in aedibus Thesauri Mundi, – Philosophical. Title, De contemptu mundi, sive de miseria conditionis humanae: Libri III. Author, Papa Inocencio III. Published, Export Citation, BiBTeX EndNote RefMan. De contemptu mundi, siue de miseria conditionis humanae: libri tres,. Front Cover. Papa Inocencio III. apud Antoniam Ra., – pages.

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Pope Innocent was one of the most powerful and influential of the medieval popes. He exerted onocencio wide influence over the Christian states of Europe, claiming supremacy over all of Europe’s kings. He was central in supporting the Catholic Church ‘s reforms of ecclesiastical affairs through his decretals and the Fourth Lateran Council.

This resulted in a considerable refinement of Western canon law. He is furthermore notable for using interdict and other censures to compel princes to obey his decisions, although these measures were not uniformly successful. Innocent greatly extended the scope of the crusadesdirecting crusades against Muslim Spain and the Holy Land as well huumanae the Albigensian Crusade against the Cathars in southern France.

He organized the Fourth Crusade of —, which ended in the disastrous sack of Constantinople. Although the attack on Constantinople went against his explicit orders, and the Crusaders were subsequently excommunicated, Innocent reluctantly accepted this result, seeing it as the will of God to reunite the Latin and Orthodox Churches. In the event, the sack of Constantinople and hunanae subsequent period of Frankokratia led to an increase in the hostility between the Latin and Greek churches.

The Byzantine empire was restored in but it conditioniw regained its former strength until its final destruction in Lotario de’ Conti was born in GavignanoItaly, near Anagni.

Lotario received his early education in Romeprobably at the Benedictine abbey of St Andrea al Celiounder Peter Ismael ; [4] he studied theology in Paris under the theologians Peter of PoitiersMelior of Pisa, and Peter of Corbeil[5] and possibly jurisprudence in Bolognaaccording to the Gesta between and Celestine III died on 8 Ce Before his death he donditionis urged the College of Cardinals to elect Giovanni di San Paolo as his successor, but Lotario de’ Conti was elected pope in the ruins of the ancient Septizodiumnear the Circus Maximus in Rome after only two ballots on the very day on which Celestine III died.

Fonditionis was only thirty-seven years old at the time. As pope, Innocent III began with a very wide sense of his responsibility and of his authority.

De contemptu mundi, sive De miseria conditionis humanae

He was considered to be the most powerful person in Europe at the time. The Muslim recapture of Jerusalem in was to him a divine judgment on the moral lapses of Christian princes. He was also determined to protect what he called “the liberty of the Church” from inroads by secular princes. This determination meant, among other things, that princes should not be involved in the selection of bishopsand it was focused especially on the ” patrimonium ” of the papacy, the section of central Italy claimed by the popes and later called the Papal States.

The patrimonium was routinely threatened by Hohenstaufen German kings who, as Roman emperors, claimed it for themselves. The Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI expected to be succeeded by his infant son Frederick as king of Sicilyking of the Germans, and Roman Emperor, a combination that would have brought Germany, Italy, and Sicily under a single ruler and left the patrimonium exceedingly vulnerable.

Henry VI’s widow Constance of Sicily ruled over Sicily for her young son before he reached the age of majority. Before her death inshe named Innocent as guardian of the young Frederick until he reached his maturity.

Innocent was concerned that the marriage of Henry VI and Constance of Sicily gave the Hohenstaufens a claim to all the Italian peninsula with the exception of the Papal States, which would be surrounded by Imperial territory. After the death of Emperor Henry VIwho had recently also conquered the Kingdom of Sicilythe succession became disputed: Inthe pope openly espoused the side of Otto IV, whose family had always been opposed to the house of Hohenstaufen.

It is the business of the pope to look after the interests of the Roman empire, since the empire derives its origin and its final authority from the papacy; its origin, because it was originally transferred from Greece by and for the sake of the papacy Therefore, since three persons have lately been elected king by different parties, namely the youth [Frederick, son of Henry VI], Philip [of Hohenstaufen, brother of Henry VI], and Otto [of Brunswick, of the Welf family], so also three things must be taken into account in regard to each one, namely: Far be it from us that we should defer to man rather than to God, or that we should fear the countenance of the powerful On the foregoing grounds, then, we decide that the youth should not at present be given the empire; we utterly reject Philip for his manifest unfitness and we order his usurpation to be resisted by all At the same time, Innocent encouraged the cities in Tuscany to form a league, called the League of San Genesio against German imperial interests in Italy, and they placed themselves under Innocent’s protection.


This decree was afterwards embodied in the ” Corpus Juris Canonici “, contained the following items:. Despite papal support, Otto could not oust his rival Philip until the latter was murdered in a private feud. His rule now undisputed, Otto reneged on his earlier promises and now set his sights on reestablishing Imperial power in Italy and claiming even the Kingdom of Sicily.

Given the papal interest to keep Germany and Sicily apart, Innocent now supported his ward, King Frederick of Sicily, to resist Otto’s advances and restore the Staufen dynasty to the Holy Roman Empire.

Frederick was duly elected by the Staufen partisans. Otto was defeated by the French and thereafter lost all influence. He died on 19 Mayleaving Frederick II the undisputed emperor. Innocent III was a vigorous opponent of religious dissent, perceived as heresyand undertook campaigns against it. At the beginning of his pontificatehe focused on the Albigensesalso known as the Cathars, a sect that had become widespread in southwestern France, then under the control of local princes, such as the Counts of Toulouse.

The Cathars rejected the authority and the teachings of the Catholic Church, and what they viewed in it as corrupt. The murder of Pierre de Castelnau — Innocent’s legate — inby unknown assailants commonly believed to be friends of Count Raymond of Toulouse who was not a Catharcaused Innocent to change his methods from words to weapons.

The Crusade was prosecuted primarily by the French crown and promptly took on a political flavor, resulting in a significant reduction in the number of practising Cathars and realignment of the County of Toulouse in Languedoc, bringing it into the sphere of the French crown and diminishing the distinct regional culture and high level of influence of the Counts of Barcelona.

Under the leadership of Simon de Montfort, 5th Earl of Leicestera campaign was launched. The Albigensian Crusadewhich led to the slaughter of approximately 20, [25] men, women and children, Cathar and Catholic alike [25] and brought the region firmly under the control of the king of France. It was directed not only against heretical Christians, but also the nobility of Toulouse and vassals of the Crown of Aragon. King Peter II of Aragon was directly involved in the conflict, and was killed in the course of the Battle of Muret in The conflict largely ended with the Treaty of Paris ofin which the integration of the Occitan territory in the French crown was agreed upon.

His first attempt was the Fourth Crusade — which he decreed in Innocent III’s first order of business in preaching the crusade was to send missionaries to every Catholic state to endorse the campaign. Innocent III sent Peter of Capua to the kings France and England with specific instructions to convince them to settle their differences. As a result, inInnocent was successful in forging a truce of five years between the two nations.

The intent of the truce between the kings was not to allow them to lead the crusade, but rather to improve the likelihood that they would provide assistance. For the army’s leadership, Innocent aimed his pleas at the knights and nobles of Europe. For this reason, the Fourth Crusade became mainly a French affair. The Fourth Crusade was an expensive endeavor. Innocent III chose to raise funds by doing something previously unheard of in popes. He forced the entire clergy under his leadership to give one fortieth of their income in support of the Crusade.

This marked the first time a pope ever imposed a direct tax on his clerical subjects. The pope faced many difficulties with collecting this tax, including corruption of his own officials and disregard by his subjects in England. He continued in his attempt to garner funds for his crusade by sending envoys to King John of England and King Philip of France.


Both men pledged to contribute one fortieth of their own salaries to the campaign [ dubious — discuss ] [ citation needed ]. John also declared that the tax would be collected throughout England as well. The other source of funds for the crusade was the crusaders themselves. Innocent declared that those who took the vow to become crusaders but could no longer perform the tasks that they had promised to complete, could be released of their oaths by a contribution of funds to the original cause.

The pope put Archbishop Hubert Walter in charge of collecting these dues. At the onset of the crusade, the intended destination was Egypt, as the Christians and Muslims were under a truce at the time. The French failed to raise sufficient funds for payment of the Venetians. As a result, the Crusaders diverted the crusade to the Christian city of Zara at the will of the Venetians to subsidize the debt. This diversion was adopted without the consent of Innocent III, who threatened excommunication to any who took part in the attack.

A majority of the French ignored the threat and attacked Zara, and were excommunicated by Innocent III, but soon were forgiven so as to continue the crusade. A second diversion then occurred when the crusaders decided to conquer Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire.

This diversion was taken without any knowledge by Innocent III, and he did not learn of it until after the city had been captured.

Innocent viewed the capture of Constantinople as a way to reunite the schismatic Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches. The pope excommunicated the Crusaders who attacked Christian cities, but was unable to halt or overturn their actions. Erroneously, he felt that the Latin presence would bring about a reconciliation between the Eastern and Western Churches.

His tactics ultimately failed due to the significant differences between the two churches. The crusade did lead to the start of the Latin Empire inocendio rule of Constantinople, which lasted for the next sixty years. InFrancis of Assisi led his first eleven followers to Rome to seek permission from Pope Innocent III to found a new religious Order, which was ultimately granted. Reluctantly, Pope Innocent agreed to meet with Francis and the brothers the next day.

After several humane, the pope agreed to admit the group informally, adding that when God increased the group in grace and number, they could return for an official admittance. The group was tonsured. Though Pope Innocent initially had his doubts, following a dream in which he saw Francis holding up the Basilica of St.

Pope Innocent III – Wikipedia

John Lateran the cathedral of Rome, thus the ‘home church’ of all Christendomhe decided to endorse Francis’s Order. This occurred, according to tradition, on April 16,and constituted the official founding of the Franciscan Order. The group, then the “Lesser Brothers” Order of Friars Minor also known as the Franciscan Orderpreached on the streets and had no possessions.

They were centered in Porziuncola, and preached first in Umbria, before expanding throughout Iiii.

De contemptu mundi: sive, De Miseria humanae conditionis libri tres

By its conclusion it issued seventy reformatory decrees. Among other things, it encouraged creating schools and holding clergy to a higher standard than the laity. Canon 18 forbade clergymen to participate in the practice of conditionks judicial ordealeffectively banning its use. In order to define fundamental doctrines, the council reviewed the nature of the Eucharistthe ordered annual confession of sins, and prescribed detailed procedures for the election of bishops.

The council also mandated a strict lifestyle for clergy. Jews and Muslims shall wear a special dress to enable them to be distinguished from Christians so that no Christian shall come to marry them ignorant of who they are. The Council had set the beginning of the Fifth Crusade forunder the direct leadership of the Church. After the Council, in the spring ofInnocent moved to northern Italy in an attempt to reconcile the maritime cities of Pisa and Genoa by removing the excommunication cast over Pisa by his predecessor Celestine III and concluding a pact with Genoa.

His Latin works include De miseria humanae conditionisa tract on asceticism that Innocent III humamae before becoming pope, and De sacro altaris mysterioa description and exegesis of the liturgy. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Biography portal Christianity portal History portal.