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Peruvian intellectual José Carlos Mariátegui (–) mentioned as a ripe site for new . tegui calls “el problema del indio.” Mariátegui’s. En este programa tratamos un capítulo de Siete ensayos de interpretación la realidad peruana de José Carlos Mariátegui. Puedes leerlo. Esquema de la evolución económicaEl problema del indioEl problema de la tierraEl proceso de la instrucción públicaEl factor religioso.

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José Carlos Mariátegui by Lesly Palomino on Prezi

In turn, business capital, almost exclusively foreign, had no choice but to deal and associate with this aristocracy, which, moreover, tacitly or explicitly continued to dominate political life. Within the capitalist system, large property replaces and banishes small agricultural property by its ability to intensify production through the employment of modern farm methods.

Through indenture and yanaconazgo, the large proprietors block the appearance of free-wage contracting, a functional necessity to a liberal and capitalist economy. Russian agriculture thus kept its feudal character.

Seven Interpretative Essays on Peruvian Reality

Although the republic—following the course and dictates of history—was established on liberal and bourgeois principles, the practical effects of independence on agricultural property could not help but be limited by the interests of the large landowners. The chroniclers of the conquest and of the colonial period viewed the indigenous panorama with medieval eyes. Independence found Peru to be backward in the formation of its bourgeoisie.

The urban population of the West emigrates to a lesser degree and industrial workers know, moreover, that there is little for them to do in Latin America. Hildebrando Castro Pozo, Nuestra comunidad indigena. But a colonial economy is established on bases that are in part artificial and foreign, subordinate to the interests of the colonizer.

A true statesman, not one of our military bosses of poblema pe- J riod, would have heeded and dealt with this basic problem.

Books by José Carlos Mariátegui (Author of Seven Interpretive Essays on Peruvian Reality)

It is hardly too much to say that at this early epoch despotism is the best friend of humanity and, paradoxical as it may sound, of liberty. This thesis may seem overly simplified to those who look only at its economic aspect and who are, unknowingly, the survivors of old-fashioned scholarly rhetoric. They would at least ensure that discussion of the agrarian problem by the new generation would not altogether lack the liberal philosophy mariategki, according to written history, has governed the life of Peru since the foundation of the republic.


Today, a new order cannot abjure any of the moral gains of modern society. Those who believe this undoubtedly do not understand the organic, fundamental difference existing between a feudal or semi-feudal economy and a capitalist economy.

The ayllu—the community—was the nucleus of the empire. James George Frazer—very remote spiritually and physically from the chroniclers of the colony—writes: The problem of land is obviously too bound up with the Indian problem to be conveniently mitigated or diminished. Their judgments were strictly in keeping with their Spanish and Catholic points of view.

Programa 57 – Escuela de cuadros – El problema del indio (Mariategui)

Although the Inca regime may be censured in the name of mariwtegui liberal concepts of liberty and justice, the positive and material historical fact is that it assured the subsistence and growth of a population that came to ten million when the conquistadors arrived in Peru, and that this population after three centuries of Spanish domination had fallen to one million.

Absolutism always means poverty for the many and opulence and mariateyui power for the few. And this comparison requires a certain degree of historical relativism.

Inseparable and of the same substance, their analysis leads us to the conclusion that the servitude oppressing the indigenous race cannot be abolished unless the latifundium is abolished.

The abolition of forced labor, therefore, never became more than a theoretical declaration because it did not touch the latifundium, and servitude is only one of the aspects of feudalism, not feudalism itself. He had already realized that it was in his interest to assign lots to his peasants, provided that they were less than subsistence size. Countries that were able to cure themselves of it after independence have progressed; those that are still afflicted are backward.


Food crops intended for the domestic market generally are grown by small landowners and tenant farmers. It is the pattern of elimination followed by civilization in the history of all peoples.

Only in the valleys of Lima, because of the proximity of sizable urban markets, do large estates grow food crops.

It is the otrabototsch-nai system. With the practice of exterminating the indigenous population and destroying its institutions, the conquistadors impoverished and bled, more than they could realize, the fabulous country they had won for the king of Spain.

American descendants of the first two classes who had received some education in America or in Spain were the ones to raise the banner of the revolution. Loans are reserved, dl all levels, for the cotton farmer. There are two expressions of feudalism that survive: The forms of sharecropping probblema tenant farming vary on the coast and in the sierra according to regions, practice, or crops. The struggle for independence in many cases ineio the land-holding nobility and the bourgeois merchants, either because the former had been indoctrinated with liberal ideas or because it regarded the revolution as only a liberation movement from the Spanish crown.

In this he agrees with Valcarcel, whose statements about the ayllu appear to some to be too colored by his ideal of an Indian renaissance. An idealistic critic would define it as a gain made by the human spirit in modern times.