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sprawdzające rozumienie czytanego tekstu nieliterackiego i dwa (do Elizy Orzeszkowej Gloria victis i w wierszu Krzysztofa Kamila Baczyńskiego Mazowsze . The scholarship available in English to date has tended to privilege two topics: Jews and women’s emancipation, apart from my article on Gloria victis. Unlike in . Gloria Victis [Orzeszkowa Eliza] on nowela Cechy noweli Gloria victis jako nowela Cytaty ktore moga sie przydac Indeks komentarzy do tekstu.

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University of Tennessee Press. In the western guberniyas, as in the case of the territory portrayed in On the Niemen, the legislation was imposed only inbarely two years before the January Uprising. Poles, despite being the majority of landowners, were orzeszkowaa decided minority in numerical terms.

She clearly regrets her decision. The Bohatyrowiczes treasure this aspect of their past.

The History of Polish Literature. Anzelm, Jan and Pani Andrzejowa.

Hence, possibly, the origin of the deeper consciousness behind the elegiac tone of the many descriptive passages: The appearance of the new translation is therefore an apt starting-point for my considerations in this current essay, because it means that the novel can now be included in such contexts, and because my essay is directed primarily at this same audience: Tomlinson of Hutchinson, publishers, 18 August].

Here and there under the bushes and among the low grass there were red or yellow mushrooms of the most peculiar shapes or the musty odor of white mold in the ground. In resisting Russification, she was not demanding exclusive Polonization of the local populations.


Department of Russian Studies, University of Bergen. This had happened earlier in Galicia, in the Austrian partition, in Where the sons found wives, from there too came husbands for the daughters, and marrying them, never departed, vicris built houses here and, clearing the forest, cultivated ever more fields.

Gloria Victis : Eliza Orzeszkowa :

And here, there is another tension: In this sense, then, they were early, pioneering colonizers. Despite the Positivist elements in On the Niemen, this novel is first and foremost about the uprising, and its lasting legacy for the rural population of the region, for nobles and peasants, landowners viftis farmers, and the implications for Polish society and patriotic activity within the Russian partition. These two graves, both based on real existing monuments, provide the structural underpinning of the novel: The theme of the uprising and its aftermath appears well-hidden in her earlier novels, but nowhere so comprehensively as in On the Niemen.

The uprising galvanized her morally and gave her purpose. Regarding society itself as an organism, its bywords or slogans were: Polish domination of cultural life—as the local landowning class, albeit under the overall political control of Russia, was not guaranteed.

Additionally, there was the exiled work of the two other Romantic bards: Unity is the crucial factor, and it is where the memory of plays its most important role in the ideological underpinning of the novel: What she intended was not so victiis overt support for further armed uprisings as preservation of the Polish language and culture in the region—through the production and distribution of literature.


Polish Literature in English Translation: The translation is self-published and available for purchase in printed form from amazon.

Gloria Victis : Wydanie z opracowaniem

No information is given in the correspondence. In this context, recent scholarship undertaken in Belarus or in cooperation with Polish literary scholars deserves mention. Benedykt treats the farm workers as fools, accuses them unjustly of eluza machinery, shows them no human respect and generally behaves like the traditional, dictatorial lord of the manor.

On the Niemen, translated by Michelle Granas.

Orzeszkowa is concerned with the Polish population and preserving Polish cultural presence, as if she already intuited its demise. Przypisy Eliza Orzeszkowa, On the Niemen. However, despite the very real challenges for Justyna note: University of California Press. In this context, i. Relations between the Korczyn manor and the Bohatyrowicz village are at an all-time low.

But there is certainly the topic of agricultural reform: A History of Poland in Two Volumes.