Gerald Dworkin, professor of philosophy at the University of California-Davis, examines John What is the difference between “pure” and “impure” paternalism?. Outline of Dworkin on Paternalism (in James White text). Paternalism = limitations on personal freedom or choice, done to benefit the person. GERALD DWORKIN. MORAL PATERNALISM. (Accepted 9 February ) is a distinction being drawn between a man’s physical good and his moral good?.
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Gerald Dworkin, Moral paternalism – PhilPapers
As the examples indicate the question of paternalism is one that arises in many different areas of our personal and public life. Kleinig, John,PaternalismTowata: The analysis of paternalism involves at least the following elements.
A husband may hide the sleeping pills from a depressed wife. You do not currently have access to this article. Mirror Sites View this site from another server: If I act knowing that you do not or would not consent to what I am doing, I act against your consent. It does not allow consent to certain forms of assault to be a defense against prosecution for that assault. One can dworkiin reject the strategy as the wrong one, or mistaken.
Hypothetical Motives An act may be defined as paternalistic in terms of the reason for which A acts. One issue with many nudges is what the person being nudged knows about the nudge. Soft paternalism is the view that the only conditions under which state paternalism is justified is when it is necessary to determine whether the person being interfered with is geralld voluntarily and knowledgeably.
The issue is whether it is a necessary condition.
In order to influence students to make healthier food choices as they paternlaism the cafeteria options place the healthy foods at eye level and place the less healthy dworkim higher or lower than eye level. Wilkinson, see Other Internet Resources. Climate Change and Optimum Population. It is influenced by research in the behavioral sciences on the many ways in which our cognitive and affective capacities are flawed and limited. The most striking part of the definition is clause 3.
The choice set remains the same.
Kantian views are frequently absolutistic in their objections to paternalism. For example, the concept might have to be scalar rather than on-off. They seem pafernalism be defending their definitions against rivals. Call these broad nudges. In almost every case, respondents on the left of the political spectrum supported nudges when they were illustrated with a liberal agenda but opposed them when they were illustrated with a conservative one; meanwhile, respondents on the political right exhibited the opposite pattern.
Suppose we prevent persons from manufacturing cigarettes because we believe they are harmful to consumers.
Another issue concerning autonomy is whether it is affected by both intentional and unintentional nudges. There will be some conceptual or normative issues that will be used to assess the usefulness or correctness of the definition. But proponents do not follow this pattern.
The government could announce in advance that they are going to use subliminal messages on television programs to promote health. Nevertheless the basic justification is paternalist because the consumer consents assuming the relevant information is available to him to the harm. The third condition also can be complicated. There may be no common features which explain why those nudges that are wrongful all fall under paternaoism plausible concept of manipulation.
Outline of Dworkin on Paternalism
The broadest is simply consequentialist, i. Carson Strong – – Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 5 1. But to do this she must show that it is not an instance of paternalism in the sense that her opponent to the dispute accept something as paternalistic.
Reference to the welfare or interest of Y is no longer a necessary condition. We are not nudging towards ends she does not hold. Added to PP index Total downloads 20, of 2, Recent downloads 6 months 76 4, of 2, How can I increase my downloads?
It is deliberate and motivated by a particular set of considerations. Most workers questioned about the painting either had not noticed it at all or made no connection with the issue of payment.
Imagine 3 solid pieces of stone. Warning labels, default rules such as opt-out, providing caloric information on menus cannot count as manipulation without using such an expansive conception of manipulation as to deprive it of any use.
Suppose we presented an opt-out set up and said 1 we are doing this to increase participation in the retirement program, and 2 if this is effective it is because people have a tendency to stick with the status-quo. In the cafeteria example while aware that the food is on different levels the dwormin are not gerrald that the placing of the food has been done in order to promote a certain end—eating more healthy foods. Clear cases with children: Added to PP index Total downloads 17, of 2, Recent downloads 6 months 5of 2, How can I increase my downloads?
As we have seen the analysis of paternalism seems to cut both ways. Punishment in Criminal Law in Philosophy of Law. Philosophy and Public Affairs. If one believes that sometimes paternalism is justifiable one may do so for various kinds of theoretical reasons.