In economics an isocost line shows all combinations of inputs which cost the same total amount The isocost line is combined with the isoquant map to determine the optimal production point at any given level of output. Specifically, the point. Isocost-isoquant analysis: theory of production: The production function: a figure known as an isoquant diagram (Figure 1). In the graph, goldsmith-hours per. Isoquants: An isoquant (equal quantity) is a curve that shows the combinations of certain inputs such as Labor (L) and Capital (K) that will produce a certain.

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### Isocost – Wikipedia

If the y -isoquant is smooth and convex to the origin and the cost-minimizing bundle involves a positive amount of each input, then at a cost-minimizing input bundle an isocost line is tangent to the y -isoquant. The firm can achieve maximum profits by choosing that combination of factors which will cost it the least. This is explained in terms of Figure Each curve shows the alternative combinations of labour and capital that would produce 8 and 10 units of output, respectively.

In this case, the production function is homogeneous of degree greater than one. This is the stage of negative marginal returns. The firm will produce only in those segments of the isoquants which are convex to the origin and lie between the ridge lines.

The firm experiences internal diseconomies.

Read this article to learn about the laws of returns: These curves are also known as outlay lines, price lines, input-price lines, factor-cost lines, constant-outlay lines, etc. Therefore, the only way to maximise profit is to minimise cost. As more labour is employed, output increases less than proportionately to the increase in the labour employed.

Prices of raw materials also go up. As we move along an isoquant downward to the right, each point on isocots represents the substitution of labour for capital.

## Explain a firmâ€™s equilibrium with the help of isoquants and isocost line.

Individuals have to pay tax on the following incomes: It implies that the marginal product of labour continues to decline with the employment of larger quantities to it. We study these cases separately.

Therefore, the isoquant IQ 1 which lies above and to the right of the isoquant IQ, represents a larger output level. Username or Email Password. The principle of marginal rate of technical substitution MRTS or MRS is based isouqant the production function where two factors can be substituted in variable proportions in such a way as to produce a constant level of output.

## Isoquant and Isocost Lines (With Diagram) | Economics

The isoquant AH reveals that as the units of labour are successively increased into the factor-combination to produce units of good X, the reduction in the units of capital becomes smaller and smaller. It is also known as the desired rate of factor substitution, i. Indivisible factors may become inefficient and less productive.

We may now speak a few words about the slopes of isoquant and an isocost line. Meaning and Process of Capital Formation Economics. The returns to scale are constant when internal economies enjoyed by a firm are neutralised by internal diseconomies so that output increases in the same proportion.

### Explain a firm’s equilibrium with the help of isoquants and isocost line. –

If in order to secure equal increases in output, both factors are increased in larger proportionate units, there are decreasing returns to scale. These lines are straight lines because factor prices are constant and they have a negative slope equal to the factor-price ratio, i. Returns to a factor studies the behavior of output when more and more units of the variable factor is combined with the fixed fact It means that the isoquant must be convex to the origin at every point.

All these economies help in increasing the returns to scale more than proportionately. For example, in Figure So the condition that the MRTS be equal to the input cost ratio is equivalent to the condition that the marginal product per dollar is equal for the two inputs. The isoquants have an added advantage over the former because they can be labelled in physical units, as,etc.

So, like the consumer the producer has also to operate under a budget resource constraint.